Luciano Floridi and the virtues of honesty, perspective, flexibility and justice

Inspired by Shannon Vallor’s book “Technology and virtues: A philosophical guide to a future worth wanting“, in which she discusses a range of technomoral virtues that we would need to cultivate in order to flourish as people (2016, p. 118-155), I am writing a series of portraits of exemplars–people who embody these virtues.

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor Luciano Floridi

From: https://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/people/luciano-floridi/

Luciano Floridi is currently Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information and Director of the Digital Ethics Lab, at the University of Oxford, Oxford Internet Institute, and holds several other academic positions. He was originally educated as a historian of philosophy; he then became interested in analytic philosophy (MA) and in epistemology and philosophy of logic (MPhil and PhD). He contributed greatly to the Philosophy of Information (and Technology), and Information (and Computer and Digital) Ethics, e.g., in his recent books: “Philosophy of Information” (2011), “The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” (editor) (2010), “Information: A Very Short Introduction” (2010), “The Fourth Revolution: How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality” (2014), and “The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information” (2016).

Moreover, Floridi has been deeply engaged with initiatives on the socio-ethical value and implications of digital technologies and their applications; nationally (e.g., in the UK, with the House of Lords, the Cabinet Office, and the Information Commissioner’s Office),  internationally (e.g., member of the EU’s Ethics Advisory Group on Ethical Dimensions of Data Protection), and with corporations (e.g., member of Google Advisory Board on “the right to be forgotten”). He is one of the members of the recently established High Level Group of Artificial Intelligence.

The Onlife Manifesto

In the context of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 research program, he was editor of the “Onlife Manifesto: Being Human in a Hyperconnected Era“. The authors of this Manifesto argue that “ICTs are not mere tools but rather environmental forces that are increasingly affecting: 1. our self-conception (who we are); 2. our mutual interactions (how we socialise); and 3. our conception of reality (our metaphysics); and 4. our interactions with reality (our agency).” Moreover, they argue that this impact of ICTs is “due to at least four major transformations: a. the blurring of the distinction between reality and virtuality; b. the blurring of the distinction between human, machine and nature; c. the reversal from information scarcity to information abundance; and d. the shift from the primacy of stand-alone things, properties, and binary relations, to the primacy of interactions, processes and networks.”

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor floridi why ai is both logically possible and utterly implausible

From: https://aeon.co/essays/true-ai-is-both-logically-possible-and-utterly-implausible 

Floridi also contributed to the debate on Artificial Intelligence. In response to alarmist messages by Stephen Hawking, Bill Gates and Elon Musk, Floridi wrote that “True AI is not logically impossible, but it is utterly implausible” (Should we be afraid of AI?). Instead of being overly optimistic/utopian or overly pessimist/dystopian, he proposes to be realistic about AI and use it for the greater good and benefits of society: “We should make AI environment-friendly [and] human-friendly […] We should make AI’s predictive power work for freedom and autonomy […] And finally, we should make AI make us more human.”

In his search for scientific rigour and his efforts to generate an overall vision on the role of ICTs, Floridi embodies the technomoral virtue of honesty and perspective, which Vallor defines as, respectively, “an exemplary respect for truth, along with the practical expertise to express that respect appropriately in technomoral contexts(2016, p. 122), and a reliable disposition to attent to, discern and understand moral phenomena as meaningful parts of a moral whole” (2016, p. 149). 

In his engagement with society and collaborations with policy makers and corporatons, Floridi embodies the technomoral virtues of flexibility and justice, which Vallor defines as, respectively, a “reliable and skillful disposition to modulate action, belief, and feeling as called for by novel, unpredictable, frustrating, or unstable technosocial conditions” (2016, p. 145), and a characteristic concern for how emerging technologies impact the basic rights, dignity, or welfare of individuals and groups” (2016, p. 128).


Possibly, you find that Luciano Floridi embodies other virtues as well. Or you may have other ideas about the virtues discussed above. Please post them below or contact me at: marc.steen-at-tno.nl

 

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Jaron Lanier and the virtues of perspective, justice and flexibility

Inspired by Shannon Vallor’s book “Technology and virtues: A philosophical guide to a future worth wanting“, in which she discusses a range of technomoral virtues that we would need to cultivate in order to flourish as people (2016, p. 118-155), I am writing a series of portraits of exemplars–people who embody these virtues.

jaronlanier

From: http://www.jaronlanier.com/

Jaron Lanier embodies the technomoral virtues of perspective, justice and flexibility.

Lanier is a computer scientist, author and musician. He pioneered Virtual Reality; in the early 1980s he founded VPL Research, the first company to sell VR products, and in the late 1980s he led the team that developed the first multi-person virtual worlds, using head mounted displaysand “avatars”. He believes that VR can help people to experience their own consciousness and to meet and empathize with others. He “is known for charting a humanistic approach to technology appreciation and criticism“; he wrote award-winning and best-selling books like: You Are Not A Gadget (2010), Who Owns the Future? (2012), Dawn of the New Everything (2017), and Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now (2018)As a musician, Lanier has been active in the world of new “classical” music since the late seventies. He is a specialist in unusual musical instruments, especially the wind and string instruments of Asia. He is also active as a visual artist.

Lanier is a visionary and in that sense he embodies the technomoral virtue of perspective–a virtue which Vallor defines as: “a reliable disposition to attent to, discern and understand moral phenomena as meaningful parts of a moral whole” (2016, p. 149). He has a holistic and humanistic vision that encompasses and critically connects tiny things, like a seemingly small detail in a user interface design, which supports or stifles a specific behavior, e.g., a civil conversation or toxic mob behavior, and huge things, like capitalism and its grip on tech companies’ business models, and their drive to grab people’s attention and steer their behavior, and in the process (probably unintentionally) corrode the social fabric of society.

Furthermore, Lanier embodies the technomoral virtue of justice, which Vallor defines as a “reliable disposition to seek a fair and equitable distribution of the benefits and risks of emerging technologies” and a “characteristic concern for how emerging technologies impact the basic rights, dignity, or welfare of individuals and groups” (2016, p. 128).

Lanier worries about the inequalities that the Internet propagates and exacerbates. He explains that several beliefs and decisions made early on in the development of the Internet currently hound us is: the belief that “information want to be free” and the decision in favor of a capitalist model. This has resulted in free services, like Google and Facebook, which see people as data points that can be surveilled and manipulated. As a result, a very small number of people is getting very rich from the business of disrupting society. Lanier also points out that this evil outcome does not need any evil intentions. It’s the by-product of a series of choices.

lanier2

From: http://www.jaronlanier.com

Moreover, Lanier embodies the technomoral virtue of flexibility, which Vallor defines as “a reliable and skillful disposition to modulate action, belief, and feeling as called for by novel, unpredictable, frustrating, or unstable technosocial conditions” (2016, p. 145). Lanier’s biography, with his movements between action and reflection, and between knowledge domains, demonstrates his flexibility.

As a result of his flexibility, it’s not easy to put Lanier into neat categories. One could, e.g., also argue that he embodies virtues like civility (his disposition to want to foster dialogue and decency in cases of disagreement), courage (his disposition to express dissent in a milieu of which he’s part himself), and humility (his disposition to view technology as a tool, and to focus on ways in which it can promote human flourishing).


Possibly, you find that Jaron Lanier embodies other virtues as well. Or you may have other ideas about the virtues discussed above. Please post them below or contact me at: marc.steen-at-tno.nl